End-User-Centered Explainable AI Framework

A practical prototyping tool to design explainable AI for non-technical end-users.

End-User-Friendly Explanatory Forms
• Feature-based explanation
• Example-based explanation
• Rule-based explanation
• Contextual information
Explanation Goals
EUCA Dataset

EUCA dataset description

Associated Paper: EUCA: the End-User-Centered Explainable AI Framework

Authors: Weina Jin, Jianyu Fan, Diane Gromala, Philippe Pasquier, Ghassan Hamarneh

EUCA dataset is for modelling personalized or interactive explainable AI. It contains 309 data points of 32 end-users’ preferences on 12 forms of explanation (including feature-, example-, and rule-based explanations). The data were collected from a user study on 32 layperson participants in the Greater Vancouver city area in 2019-2020. In the user study, the participants (P01-P32) were presented with AI-assisted critical tasks on house price prediction, health status prediction, purchasing a self-driving car, and studying for a biological exam [1]. Within each task and for its given explanation goal [2], the participants selected and rank the explanation forms [3] that they saw the most suitable.

  1. ExplanationFormRanking.csv

    Column description:

    • Index - Participants’ number
    • Case - task-explanation goal combination
    • accept to use AI? trust it? - Participants response to whether they will use AI given the task and explanation goal
    • require explanation? - Participants response to the question whether they request an explanation for the AI
    • 1st, 2nd, 3rd, … - explanation form card selection and ranking cards fulfill requirement? - After the card selection, participants were asked whether the selected card combination fulfill their explainability requirement.
  2. demography.csv

    It contains the participants demographics, including their age, gender, educational background, and their knowledge and attitudes toward AI.

EUCA dataset zip file for download

[1] Critical tasks

There are four tasks. Task label and their corresponding task titles are: house - Selling your house car - Buying an autonomous driving vehicle health - Personal health decision bird - Learning bird species

Please refer to EUCA quantatative data analysis report for the storyboard of the tasks and explanation goals presented in the user study.

[2] Explanation goal

End-users may have different goals/purposes to check an explanation from AI. The EUCA dataset includes the following 11 explanation goals, with its [label] in the dataset, full name and description

  1. [trust] Calibrate trust: trust is a key to establish human-AI decision-making partnership. Since users can easily distrust or overtrust AI, it is important to calibrate the trust to reflect the capabilities of AI systems.
  2. [safe] Ensure safety: users need to ensure safety of the decision consequences.

  3. [bias] - Detect bias: users need to ensure the decision is impartial and unbiased.

  4. [unexpect] Resolve disagreement with AI: the AI prediction is unexpected and there are disagreements between users and AI.

  5. [expected] - Expected: the AI’s prediction is expected and aligns with users’ expectations.

  6. [differentiate] Differentiate similar instances: due to the consequences of wrong decisions, users sometimes need to discern similar instances or outcomes. For example, a doctor differentiates whether the diagnosis is a benign or malignant tumor.

  7. [learning] Learn: users need to gain knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and discover new knowledge

  8. [control] Improve: users seek causal factors to control and improve the predicted outcome.

  9. [communicate] Communicate with stakeholders: many critical decision-making processes involve multiple stakeholders, and users need to discuss the decision with them.

  10. [report] Generate reports: users need to utilize the explanations to perform particular tasks such as report production. For example, a radiologist generates a medical report on a patient’s X-ray image.

  11. [multi] Trade-off multiple objectives: AI may be optimized on an incomplete objective while the users seek to fulfill multiple objectives in real-world applications. For example, a doctor needs to ensure a treatment plan is effective as well as has acceptable patient adherence. Ethical and legal requirements may also be included as objectives.

[3] explanation form

The following 12 explanation forms are end-user-friendly, i.e.: no technical knowledge is required for the end-user to interpret the explanation.

Note: occasionally there is a wild card, which means the participant draw the card by themselves. It is indicated as ‘wc’.

For visual examples of each explanation form card, please refer to the Explanatory_form_labels.pdf document.

Link to the details on users’ requirements on different explanation forms

Code and report for EUCA data quantatitve analysis

EUCA data citation

   title={EUCA: the End-User-Centered Explainable AI Framework},
      author={Weina Jin and Jianyu Fan and Diane Gromala and Philippe Pasquier and Ghassan Hamarneh},