EUCA: the End-User-Centered Explainable AI Prototyping Framework

EUCA website:


The ability to explain decisions to end-users is a necessity to deploy AI as critical decision support. Yet making AI explainable to end-users is a relatively ignored and challenging problem. To bridge the gap, we first identify twelve end-user-friendly explanatory forms that do not require technical knowledge to comprehend, including feature-, example-, and rule-based explanations. We then instantiate the explanatory forms as prototyping cards in four AI-assisted critical decision-making tasks, and conduct a user study to co-design low-fidelity prototypes with 32 layperson participants. The results confirm the relevance of using explanatory forms as building blocks of explanations, and identify their proprieties — pros, cons, applicable explanation goals, and design implications. The explanatory forms, their proprieties, and prototyping supports (including a suggested prototyping process, design templates and exemplars, and associated algorithms to actualize explanatory forms) constitute the End-User-Centered explainable AI framework EUCA, and is available at It serves as a practical prototyping toolkit for HCI/AI practitioners and researchers to understand user requirements and build end-user-centered explainable AI.

Arxiv Paper

Poster Abstract


List of reviewed papers